By Prayson Daniel
In “Dangerous Richard Dawkins’ Ideas?” I explained how Richard Dawkins’ The God Delusion central argument is fallacious namely charged with Non sequitur(Latin “it does not follow.”) Fallacy, that is even if we grant Richard Dawkins’ premises to be true, the conclusion does not follow from them.
In this article, I will go through Richard Dawkins’ statement(premise) three. It is the objection I countless receive in my blog comments: Who Designed The Designer?(The God Delusion p. 157-8)
- One of the greatest challenges to the human intellect has been to explain how the complex, improbable appearance of design in the universe arises.
- The natural temptation is to attribute the appearance of design to actual design itself.
- The temptation is a false one because the designer hypothesis immediately raises the larger problem of who designed the designer.
Flaw in Statement 3
[I]n order to recognize an explanation as the best, one needn’t have an explanation of the explanation. This is an elementary point concerning inference to the best explanation as practiced in the philosophy of science.
If archaeologists digging in the earth were to discover things looking like arrowheads and hatchet heads and pottery shards, they would be justified in inferring that these artifacts are not the chance result of sedimentation and metamorphosis, but products of some unknown group of people, even though they had no explanation of who these people were or where they came from. Similarly, if astronauts were to come upon a pile of machinery on the back side of the moon, they would be justified in inferring that it was the product of intelligent, extra-terrestrial agents, even if they had no idea whatsoever who these extra-terrestrial agents were or how they got there. In order to recognize an explanation as the best, one needn’t be able to explain the explanation. In fact, so requiring would lead to an infinite regress of explanations, so that nothing could ever be explained and science would be destroyed. So in the case at hand, in order to recognize that intelligent design is the best explanation of the appearance of design in the universe, one needn’t be able to explain the designer.~William Lane Craig
Who Designed The Designer?
Who created the Christian’s God? I will answer this question in two ways: One according to the Christian Historical understand of who God is, namely Biblical Explanation(Biblical Theology) and two; according to Philosophical Reasoning namely Natural Theology.
One: Biblical Theology
In this article, I treated the Bible, as collection of 66 different books written by at least 40 authors, in duration of approximately 1500 years and in three languages – Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek as any other ancient writings(thus I do not assume inspiration), to draw out what these monotheistic kings, peasants, philosophers, fishermen, poets, statesmen, scholars believed who God is:
Timelessness of God:
- In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth (Genesis 1:1)
- No, we speak of God’s secret wisdom, a wisdom that has been hidden and that God destined for our glory before time began. (1 Corinthians 2:7)
- This grace was given us in Christ Jesus before the beginning of time (2 Timothy 1:9)
- The hope of eternal life, which God who never lies, promised before the beginning of time (Titus 1:2)
- To the only God our Savior, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, dominion and authority, before all time and now and forever. Amen. (Jude 1:25)
To this, a christian apologist, Justin Martyr( A.D 103–165), , in Hortatory Address to the Greeks questioned where did Plato get the idea that time was created constantly with the universe if not from already existing writings of Moses:
“And from what source did Plato draw the information that time was created along with the heavens? For he wrote thus: “Time, accordingly, was created along with the heavens; in order that, coming into being together, they might also be together dissolved, if ever their dissolution should take place.” Had he not learned this from the divine history of Moses?”1
According to the books(The Bible) authors, God is understood as timeless, this truth is also expressed in different terms as “from everlasting to everlasting”(Psalm 90:2 and Job 36:26), First and Last, Alpha and Omega(Revelation 1:8 cf 4:8)
for I am God, and there is no other;
I am God, and there is none like me,
declaring the end from the beginning
and from ancient times things not yet done,
saying, ‘My counsel shall stand,
and I will accomplish all my purpose,’
(Isaiah 46:9-10 ESV)
Only a being that is not bound by time can declare the end from the beginning”creation”. Thus these authors understood God to be timeless.
Immutability of God
According to the Biblical authors, God is unchanging in his being, perfections, purpose, and promises.
Of old you laid the foundation of the earth,
and the heavens are the work of your hands.
They will perish, but you will remain;
they will all wear out like a garment.
You will change them like a robe, and they will pass away,
but you are the same, and your years have no end.
(Psalm 102:25-27 ESV)
“For I the LORD do not change; therefore you, O children of Jacob, are not consumed. (Malachi 3:6 ESV)
Therefore God is viewed by this authors as changeless in respect to his being that is the timeless, changeless being that created time, matter and space.
God is Who He is(Exist necessarily):
In Yetsi’at Mitzrayim(“the exit from Egypt” Exodus c. 1260/1446 B.C) writings a figure known as Moses(Jewish prince of Egypt, shepherd, prophet) as God, what shall I say You are?:
Then Moses said to God, “If I come to the people of Israel and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they ask me, ‘What is his name?’ what shall I say to them?” God said to Moses, “I AM WHO I AM.” And he said, “Say this to the people of Israel, ‘I AM has sent me to you.’” (Exodus 3:13-14 ESV)
Hebrew Ehyeh asher ehyeh (I am Who I am) God exist because of his nature of existence. This truth leads us to Philosophical theology.
Two: Natural Theology
From the Kalam Argument
1. Everything that begins to exist has a cause.
2. The universe began to exist.
3. Therefore, the universe has a cause.
A cause of the universe(of space and time) must possess these following attributes,
- It must transcend space and time and therefore exist timelessly and non-spatially (at least without the universe) because anything that is timeless must also be unchanging.
- This transcendent cause must be changeless and immaterial because anything that is changeless must be non-physical and immaterial(Note: Materials constantly change at the molecular and atomic levels)
Objection: If Everything that begins to exist has a cause. Who Cause God?
As we have survey on the Biblical Theology, God is understood as a being that never began to exist, thus needs no cause. The argument argue for Everything that begins to exist has a cause, not everything that exist.
If God is timeless and changeless(thus immaterial and spaceless) then He can not be created, or design. He simply exist necessary by respect of his own nature.
1. Everything that exists has an explanation of its existence, either in the necessity of its own nature or in an external cause.”(Premise of On Contingency Cosmological Argument)
According to premise 1, there are two kinds of things: things which exist necessarily and things which are produced by some external cause. Let me explain.
Things that exist necessarily exist by a necessity of their own nature. It’s impossible for them not to exist. Many mathematicians think that numbers, sets, and other mathematical entities exist in this way. They’re not caused to exist by something else; they just exist necessarily.~William Lane Craig
This truth is farther covered in Natural Theology; The Cosmological Argument from Contingency.
In the Study of Physic, matter and time and space must all occur together, thus before the universe came to exist, there was no time, at least not in the sense of a succession of moments one after another, no space, no material.
The cause of the universe(time, space and material) must posses timeless, spaceless, and immaterial attributed. This cause is what Biblical Christians understand as God.
Question: Who Design the Designer?
Answer: None, Designer exist necessary because of its(His) nature.
A being which is timeless, spaceless and immaterial is not created, nor design.
Note: biblion Greek for Book is a collection of history of Israel, and the spreading of the believe of Jesus of Nazareth as the promised Christ. Therefore,